Date   

Re: Ascom 6 / Saving Elevation setting: Weird behavior

Rodolphe G.
 

Okay.

I found a "smart" workaround but using the bug to my benefit: I enter 65, save location, and it turns into 650, which is fine ;)

The value no longer changes (as I don't have to save the location any further).

To your question, Winver:
  • Version 1903 (OS Build 18362.295)
I tried reinstalling the ASCOM version (standard, not the EU specific one), same issue.

Hope it helps.


Re: Full Field image ( New file uploaded to ap-ug )

mike.hambrick@...
 

There is a pattern of stars in the open cluster that reminds me of M11 - The Wild Duck Cluster

Best Regards

Michael Hambrick
ARLANXEO
TSR Global Manufacturing Support
PO Box 2000
Orange, TX 77631-2000
Phone: +1 (409) 882-2799
email: mike.hambrick@...


Full Field image ( New file uploaded to ap-ug )

Roland Christen
 

Hi Astrofolks,

After playing around with the data George took with the 175 refractor and my data with the 155 and 180, I combined them to show a full field image at full resolution and a bit more color processing. We have the galaxy in the lower right, the compact open cluster in the upper left and a sprinkling of very bright blue and red stars over the whole field which look like they might be a large loose open cluster. Anyone know what they might be? Sprinkled among the field are a number of faint and very faint background galaxies.

Rolando



-----Original Message-----
From: ap-ug
To: ap-ug
Sent: Wed, Aug 21, 2019 2:40 pm
Subject: [ap-ug] New file uploaded to ap-ug

Hello,

This email message is a notification to let you know that
a file has been uploaded to the Files area of the ap-ug
group.

  File        : /Images taken on the AP Mach2 Mount/Fireworks Galaxy-LRGB-FullSize2.jpg
  Uploaded by : uncarollo2 <chris1011@...>
  Description : Full Field image of NGC6946, composite of 180F9 image and 175F5.8 image taken by R.Christen and George Whitney.

You can access this file at the URL:

To learn more about file sharing for your group, please visit:

Regards,

uncarollo2 <chris1011@...>


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Re: Fireworks Galaxywith 180F9 on Mach2 (New file uploaded to ap-ug)

Ben Koltenbah
 

Well, done, and I, too, like those colors.  I'm working on a tighter Fireworks image taken with a C11 on "just an old AP 1100", and I'm hoping to achieve the same coloring as you did here.

Ben



Re: Fireworks Galaxywith 180F9 on Mach2 (New file uploaded to ap-ug)

Terry Robison
 

Nice colours in that galaxy.


Fireworks Galaxywith 180F9 on Mach2 (New file uploaded to ap-ug)

Roland Christen
 

Hi Astronuts,

George and I had a couple of clear nights last week, although the Moon was up and almost full, which did affect our background sky. I imaged this galaxy and neighboring open cluster with a 180F9 refractor running at F7.2 (Quad TCC) in luminance, 10 x 10 minutes each. Meanwhile George got 6 x 10 minutes of RGB using his 175 refractor running at F5.6. I also had some Ha narrowband data of the galaxy taken with my 155 at F5.6 which I added to the mix. Even though we had almost full Moonlight, we recorded quite a number of faint galaxies in the background. It ain't the desert of Utah, but not bad for around here in light polluted suburbia.

The exercise of course was to run the Mach2 at full load and beyond and see how well it guides. And it does guide superbly. Typical rms guiding accuracy was 0.2 arc sec and less, all night long with that long refractor and its quite significant moment arm.

Rolando


-----Original Message-----
From: ap-ug
To: ap-ug
Sent: Tue, Aug 20, 2019 1:58 pm
Subject: [ap-ug] New file uploaded to ap-ug

Hello,

This email message is a notification to let you know that
a file has been uploaded to the Files area of the ap-ug
group.

  File        : /Images taken on the AP Mach2 Mount/Fireworks Galaxy-3.jpg
  Uploaded by : uncarollo2 <chris1011@...>
  Description : NGC6946 Image taken on the Mach2 mount with: Luminance - AP 180F9 refractor QuadTCC, RGB - AP175 QuadTCC, Ha - AP155 QuadTCC.

You can access this file at the URL:

To learn more about file sharing for your group, please visit:

Regards,

uncarollo2 <chris1011@...>


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<*> To visit your group on the web, go to:

<*> Your email settings:
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COMs Issue in APCC

Steve Reilly
 

When I woke up this morning I found my roof open and mount pointing in the NW. This was well past the time the shutdown script should have run in ACP. The clock in ACP’s console showed 5:18:48, not running, and everything connected. So I looked to make sure APCC was up and running as it was. I did see that there had been some COM errors but they started at 07:04:26 and the last entry was at 08:24:02. I took screen captures of both the full screen with ACP and the programs running. The camera, rotator, mount, and focuser were all still connected. The mount, an AP1200GTO is still using the CP3 with current firmware and ASCOM driver. Concerned about the chance of storms I needed/wanted the telescope parked (Park 4) and roof closed. I used the Telescope park command in ACP to park the mount which responded as expected, parked the mount, and then closed the roof as it’s configured to do on Park. The telescope position in ACP never changed, in fact it still shows  RA:23:02:33.9 and DEC:+58 18’ 21” and the time of 05:18:48. The shutdown script is loaded but hitting the Run button does nothing. I’ve left the system running short of parking the mount, closing the roof, warming the sensor, shutting down the camera (it’s 98.2 degrees outside) but now after talking to Bob he said ACP is waiting on some communication……

 

None of this makes sense to me but that’s what’s happened. I have had ACP “wait” for park long after the scope had parked and when I opened the ASCOM Driver and parked the mount again ACP finally responded. This wasn’t the case here as the shutdown observatory script hadn’t even run although it was posed to. I ended just closing everything and rebooting…..till maybe next time.

 

Anyone have an experience such as this? This is a Windows 7 64 bit system fully updated. Typically the system runs extremely well. Whether it’s a timing thing or a COMs ting I have no clue but would like to be able to determine if there’s a way. Here are two screen captures from this morning.

https://www.astral-imaging.com/ACP-Screen%20Captures%208-19-2019.html

 

 

-Steve

 


Re: Ascom 6 / Saving Elevation setting: Weird behavior

Ray Gralak
 

Forgot to mention that I actually tried 645 and 645,0.
Both variations fail.
Did you have a chance to try the other two suggestions I made? That is:

1. Changing the Decimal symbol to "." in Windows regional settings.
2. Using Windows update to make sure you have the latest updates.

BTW, which version of Windows 10 are you using? You can find out by typing "winver" from the Windows 10 search box.

-Ray Gralak
Author of APCC (Astro-Physics Command Center): http://www.astro-physics.com/index.htm?products/accessories/software/apcc/apcc
Author of PEMPro V3: https://www.ccdware.com
Author of Astro-Physics V2 ASCOM Driver: https://www.siriusimaging.com/apdriver


-----Original Message-----
From: ap-gto@... [mailto:ap-gto@...]
Sent: Sunday, August 18, 2019 11:56 PM
To: ap-gto@...
Subject: [ap-gto] Re: Ascom 6 / Saving Elevation setting: Weird behavior



Forgot to mention that I actually tried 645 and 645,0.
Both variations fail.


Re: Ascom 6 / Saving Elevation setting: Weird behavior

Rodolphe G.
 

Forgot to mention that I actually tried 645 and 645,0.
Both variations fail.


Re: Ascom 6 / Saving Elevation setting: Weird behavior

Rodolphe G.
 

Hi Ray
Thanks for the suggestion.
I already tried 645,0 and it didn't work either.
But will try changing the locale settings.
I'm on the latest w10 release.
I'll report here about the results.
Thanks


Re: setting APCC Pro Meridian delay

Ray Gralak
 

Hi Dave,

APCC's meridian limit can stop tracking or park the mount when the limit is reached. This is independent of the meridian delay, which sets the mount's flip point. You can enable meridian limits without having APCC change the mount's flip point (meridian delay) by not enabling Counterweight up Slews within "East Limits" and "West Limits" on APCC's "Meridian" tab.

-Ray Gralak
Author of APCC (Astro-Physics Command Center): http://www.astro-physics.com/index.htm?products/accessories/software/apcc/apcc
Author of PEMPro V3: https://www.ccdware.com
Author of Astro-Physics V2 ASCOM Driver: https://www.siriusimaging.com/apdriver

-----Original Message-----
From: ap-gto@... [mailto:ap-gto@...]
Sent: Sunday, August 18, 2019 2:38 PM
To: ap-gto@...
Subject: [ap-gto] setting APCC Pro Meridian delay



I have a remote setup with my ap1200 with APCC pro. I am trying to set up protection for a meridian flip that
does not occur from a script stoppage (this happened last night for the first time in 5 months). Currently the script
is set to do a meridian flip upon crossing the meridian and completion of the current exposure. i have had the
script stop after the meridian flip and was saved by the APCC Pro horizon limit. In reading the APCC pro
manual, I can not find any direct discussion on this type of protection. but it appears that if i set the meridian
delay to a negative number, say -0.4 for a 24 minute delay in the meridian flip and select the result as "park
mount" this would provide the protection i desire. Have I interpreted the manual correctly, 1) negative sign, 2) In
another part of the meridian manual section, it recommends not using the meridian limits if remote. Implementing
only a meridian delay seems like it would be safe for remote....do you agree?

thanks

dave


setting APCC Pro Meridian delay

david w pearson
 

I have a remote setup with my ap1200 with APCC pro.  I am trying to set up protection for a meridian flip that does not occur from a script stoppage (this happened last night for the first time in 5 months).  Currently the script is set to do a meridian flip upon crossing the meridian and completion of the current exposure.   i have had the script stop after the meridian flip and was saved by the APCC Pro horizon limit.   In reading the APCC pro manual, I can not find any direct discussion on this type of protection.   but it appears that if i set the meridian delay to a negative number, say -0.4 for a 24 minute delay in the meridian flip and select the result as "park mount" this would provide the protection i desire.   Have I interpreted the manual correctly, 1) negative sign, 2) In another part of the meridian manual section, it recommends not using the meridian limits if remote.  Implementing only a meridian delay seems like it would be safe for remote....do you agree?

thanks

dave 


Re: Ascom 6 / Saving Elevation setting: Weird behavior

Ray Gralak
 

* Country: Switzerland
* Regional format: English (Switzerland)
* Decimal symbol: "," (comma) -- this is the standard format
Are you entering the elevation as "645,0"? If so try reentering the elevation without a comma.

If that doesn't help then if you change the Decimal symbol to "." does the problem go away? If so, it could be a bug in the way Windows wants to interpret a value in your regional setting. Maybe try using Windows update to make sure you have the latest updates.

-Ray Gralak
Author of APCC (Astro-Physics Command Center): http://www.astro-physics.com/index.htm?products/accessories/software/apcc/apcc
Author of PEMPro V3: https://www.ccdware.com
Author of Astro-Physics V2 ASCOM Driver: https://www.siriusimaging.com/apdriver

-----Original Message-----
From: ap-gto@... [mailto:ap-gto@...]
Sent: Sunday, August 18, 2019 2:30 AM
To: ap-gto@...
Subject: [ap-gto] Ascom 6 / Saving Elevation setting: Weird behavior



Hello

I'm really new to this group, so please pardon my ignorance if this topic has already been addressed (I did search
the forum before posting).

I was fortunate enough to acquire a second hand Mach1 + CP4 lately, and I'm absolutely delighted by the mount
<https://s.yimg.com/ok/u/assets/img/emoticons/emo1.gif> .




I face a small issue with the ASCOM driver (using the latest version: 5.20.09, firmware VCP4-P01-13), though:

1. If I set the elevation in the ASCOM driver (645 m in my case), close the driver, then reload it, it then shows
6450 m
2. if I close the driver, not changing anything, then reopen it, then it displays 64500m
3. If I do 2. again, then I get an error, Elevation field highlighted.

Am I doing anything wrong?

My setup, just in case there could be an influence:
Running Win10, EN-US ver sion, located in Switzerland.
Locale settings:

* Country: Switzerland
* Regional format: English (Switzerland)
* Decimal symbol: "," (comma) -- this is the standard format

Thanks in advance for any suggestion/help.

Regards
Rodolphe


Ascom 6 / Saving Elevation setting: Weird behavior

Rodolphe G.
 

Hello

I'm really new to this group, so please pardon my ignorance if this topic has already been addressed (I did search the forum before posting).

I was fortunate enough to acquire a second hand Mach1 + CP4 lately, and I'm absolutely delighted by the mount .


I face a small issue with the ASCOM driver (using the latest version: 5.20.09, firmware VCP4-P01-13), though:

  1. If I set the elevation in the ASCOM driver (645 m in my case), close the driver, then reload it, it then shows 6450 m
  2. if I close the driver, not changing anything, then reopen it, then it displays 64500m
  3. If I do 2. again, then I get an error, Elevation field highlighted.
Am I doing anything wrong?

My setup, just in case there could be an influence:
Running Win10, EN-US version, located in Switzerland.
Locale settings: 
  • Country: Switzerland
  • Regional format: English (Switzerland)
  • Decimal symbol: "," (comma) -- this is the standard format
Thanks in advance for any suggestion/help.

Regards
Rodolphe


Re: When will Mach2 available to order?

 

Thank you, Marj. :)


Re: Mach2 update and discussion of features

Bill Long
 

PEMPro. Problem solved.



From: ap-gto@... on behalf of jim phillips thefamily90@... [ap-gto]
Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2019 6:39 PM
To: ap-gto@... Subject: Re: [ap-gto] Re: Mach2 update and discussion of features
 
 

And not being able to even see the North Star from 2of 3 of my observing sites has always made polar alignment a pain.

Jim


From: ap-gto@... on behalf of marfig1970@... [ap-gto]
Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2019 8:21:31 PM
To: ap-gto@...
Subject: [ap-gto] Re: Mach2 update and discussion of features
 
 

Wow, that looks fantastic. I hope to be able to buy one from the next production.

Congratulations!

(I guess the only thing that it can't do is polar alignment by itself  :D   )


Re: Mach2 update and discussion of features

thefamily90 Phillips
 

And not being able to even see the North Star from 2of 3 of my observing sites has always made polar alignment a pain.

Jim


From: ap-gto@... on behalf of marfig1970@... [ap-gto]
Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2019 8:21:31 PM
To: ap-gto@...
Subject: [ap-gto] Re: Mach2 update and discussion of features
 
 

Wow, that looks fantastic. I hope to be able to buy one from the next production.

Congratulations!

(I guess the only thing that it can't do is polar alignment by itself  :D   )


Re: Mach2 update and discussion of features

Eric Dreher
 

Roland, whether or not this is true, I read somewhere that the modeling to be in the CP5 will eventually find its way into the CP4 firmware.  Is this true?

Eric


---In ap-gto@..., <chris1011@...> wrote :


I like the $7,500 number that was thrown around early in the development of the M2. That would put a lot of pressure on some of the high-end competition.
I like that too, we were hoping to be competitive with imported stuff. But look what happened meanwhile. 25% tariffs hit us big time. Our mounts use a lot of stainless steel and aluminum and it increased our metal prices. On top of that, we import lots of small components like bearings, gears, electronic components, servo motors, etc that are not manufactured in the US. These all got hit by 25%. Even the parts that we get made here have upped in price because they can (import prices are up so they raised theirs too).

The worst part of this deal is that the foreign mount manufacturers don't pay the increased prices for their components, so they get cheaper prices for alu, steel, etc. AND finally, when the Chinese mounts are exported to the US, there is no additional 25% tariff on them. Finished mounts and telescopes have no tariff imposed, just components are hit. It was done so on purpose so that consumers wouldn't be suddenly hit by higher prices for their toys. We, like the farmers, are getting squeezed.

I am very much hoping that Marj can bring this mount in under the proverbial wire, cost wise.

Rolando


-----Original Message-----
From: mogollonobs@... [ap-gto] <ap-gto@...>
To: ap-gto <ap-gto@...>
Sent: Sat, Aug 17, 2019 6:43 pm
Subject: Re: [ap-gto] Mach2 update and discussion of features



I like the $7,500 number that was thrown around early in the development of the M2. That would put a lot of pressure on some of the high-end competition.

I also realize that, I would prefer Rolando controlling the calculator, but I think Marj is the one pushing those buttons.;-)

Thanks for the update and it sounds like a fantastic mount!

Keith 



Re: Mach2 update and discussion of features

Marcelo Figueroa
 

Wow, that looks fantastic. I hope to be able to buy one from the next production.

Congratulations!

(I guess the only thing that it can't do is polar alignment by itself  :D   )


Re: Mach2 update and discussion of features

Roland Christen
 


Will the CP5 and Mach2 have software compensation for OTA orthogonally error without needing APCC-Pro?
It will be in the revised keypad software. We will also have modeling in the CP5.

Rolando


-----Original Message-----
From: Christopher Erickson christopher.k.erickson@... [ap-gto] <ap-gto@...>
To: ap-gto
Sent: Sat, Aug 17, 2019 6:44 pm
Subject: Re: [ap-gto] Mach2 update and discussion of features



Will the CP5 and Mach2 have software compensation for OTA orthogonally error without needing APCC-Pro?


-Christopher Erickson
Observatory engineer
Waikoloa, HI 96738
www.summitkinetics.com
   

On Sat, Aug 17, 2019, 1:31 PM jim phillips thefamily90@... [ap-gto] <ap-gto@...> wrote:


I wish I could guess.

As for me, accuracy finding objects to view, not requiring constant recal to go after doubles, carbon stars, planetary nebulae etc, would be best for me. All visual observing... for now. Lol.
Nothing remote

Jim


From: ap-gto@... <ap-gto@...> on behalf of chris1011@... [ap-gto] <ap-gto@...>
Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2019 7:02:29 PM
To: ap-gto@... <ap-gto@...>; ap-ug@... <ap-ug@...>
Subject: Re: [ap-gto] Mach2 update and discussion of features
 
 
Hi Jim,

What do you think it should cost, and do you need all the features?

Rolando


-----Original Message-----
From: jim phillips thefamily90@... [ap-gto] <ap-gto@...>
To: ap-gto@... <ap-gto@...>; ap-ug@... <ap-ug@...>
Sent: Sat, Aug 17, 2019 5:54 pm
Subject: Re: [ap-gto] Mach2 update and discussion of features



Cost?


From: ap-gto@... <ap-gto@...> on behalf of chris1011@... [ap-gto] <ap-gto@...>
Sent: Saturday, August 17, 2019 6:37:55 PM
To: ap-gto@... <ap-gto@...>; ap-ug@... <ap-ug@...>
Subject: [ap-gto] Mach2 update and discussion of features
 
 
Hi Astronuts,
 
We are getting very close to finishing our first production of the new Mach2 Encoder mounts. I have been testing several of the prototype mounts in the lab and under the sky in our Astro-Physics Observatory for the last year. They have gone thru extensive testing of both the hardware and software using scopes of various sizes up to and exceeding the limits so that what we ultimately deliver will meet and exceed your expectations. Personally, I have been very pleased with the performance, both as a visual and an astro-imaging mount.
 
The idea was to design a mount that could mirror the tracking/guiding performance of our much bigger 1100 - 1600 mounts while retaining the portability of our previous smaller mounts. At the same time, we are incorporating the latest technology in software and servo control to make this a true robotic mount with unparalleled tracking precision for its size..
 
The Mach2 is a dedicated encoder mount, not a normal mount with encoders slapped on "hope-it-works-for-you" kind of thing where you become the QA beta tester. We have many years of experience with high quality Renishaw encoders that are used in our 1100, 1600 and 3600 mounts all over the world, many in remote operations where the reliability of the encoders is very important. In the Mach2, the Renishaw produces extremely smooth tracking with none of the SDE errors that you will find in cheaper encoders. With a good solid setup in excellent seeing you will most likely experience guiding well below 0.2 arc seconds rms and sometimes below 0.1 arc sec rms hour after hour.
 
Being Absolute, there is no need for homing sensors or switches that can fail and are nowhere near as accurate. Not only are they built-in but also sealed from dust, dirt and other contaminants. They are attached to the end of the shaft down below, rather than to the worm wheel, so they will read actual telescope position, even with clutches loose. The readheads and encoder ring cannot be contaminated with grease or oil that can leak in hot weather from the worm wheel teeth and run down into an encoder disc that is attached to the worm wheel.
 
Here are a list of features that this mount has that I believe make it unique:
 
1) Dual high-resolution Absolute Encoders means that the mount always knows where it is pointed.
2) Proper traditional clutch allows manual sweeping as well as closed-loop servo GoTos.
3) Encoders are always active, whether the mount is used manually or electronically.
4) Internal cabling includes DC power and USB3 for customer imaging use. All motor and encoder wires are internal.
5) Worm and worm wheel are spring-loaded and always engaged. Smooth clutch does not disengage the worms yet allows fine balance to be achieved.
6) Beefed up bearings, worm wheel and bottom-end mechanics makes for a very stable platform for its size
7) New GTOCP5 servo drive and brushless micro-stepper servo motors makes for very quiet operation at all slew speeds.
8) Mount has higher slew speeds than our previous DC servo mounts.
 
9) Operation at 12 volts to 24 volts for portable and permanent setups.
10) Really precise tracking and guiding with instant response in both axes, no mechanical backlash adjustments needed.
11) Operation of scope past the meridian possible for all-night imaging without needing to flip sides if clearance permits.
12) All mechanical parts are stainless steel, aluminum or brass/bronze.
13) Full function keypad available for those who don't always have a computer available.
14) Lots of other options such as our popular Right-Angle Polar scope, larger counterweights, mounting hardware as needed.
15) A full-feature software control program - APCC and APCC Pro - is available that is very powerful and easy to use.
16) Lots of 3rd party planetarium and control software programs plug right into our mount.
 
What will the Absolute Encoders do for you?
To expand a bit on some of the above features, the absolute encoders do more than just provide information as to where the mount is pointing. In RA, the periodic error disappears and long-term tracking is sub-arc second level. In Dec, the response to sub-arc second move commands is extremely accurate with no backlash during axis reversals. During imaging you will experience fast recovery from a dither command so imaging time is not compromised while waiting for the mount to settle down.
 
Both encoders respond to external disturbances by keeping the axes pointed precisely where commanded and countering the disturbance in real time. The beefed up internals make this mount very solid with damping times under 1 second even with heavy, long telescopes attached. You can rap on the telescope tube of a 6" F9 refractor and watch the image damp out in 1 oscillation. You can grab the focuser and turn it back and forth without having the image dance about for several seconds.
 
So easy to set up.
The mount is extremely easy to set up and operate. Gone is the requirement at startup to define what starting position the mount is in - no more need to Resume from Park1, 2 etc. since the encoders always know where the axes are, even if they are moved between sessions. You set the mount up, place your scope and equipment into the saddle in any convenient orientation on any side of the mount you wish, and turn power on. That's it, you are done. Attach your favorite programs (keypad, planetarium or other apps), let them initialize and you are good to go. No homing needed since the mount is always home.
 
In my setup I am literally ready to image in just a few minutes after I open the observatory roof and turn power on to the mount.
 
Here is my workflow:
 
·         I bring up my planetarium program and connect to the mount. The ASCOM driver comes up and automatically initializes the mount. I pick an object on the screen and press GoTo. The mount slews to the proper side of the mount and begins tracking.
·         I bring up my Imaging and tracking programs (MaximDL, PHD2) and connect them to the mount. I take my first image and the object will be in the field. I could use plate solve to center it, but most times I want to place the object somewhere else in the field so as to include other nearby object also.
·         In MaximDL, I simply place the cursor where I want the image to be centered and press "Center Here". My next exposure will have the object field at the right orientation so I can begin imaging the same object field from a previous session.
·         In PHD2, I bring up a guider image, choose a suitable guide star and begin guiding.
·         All of this can be automated, of course, but even in a manual setup there really isn't anything you have to monkey with. The encoders take over and the mount happily does what it's supposed to do.
 
Additional ways this mount makes your life easier.
The microstepper servos are strong enough to drive the mount with a fair amount of imbalance, but not strong enough to cause damage to equipment if the mount is allowed to slew the scope into the pier. If the scope touches the pier or tripod legs during a high speed slew the motors will stop instantly because the encoders sense the disconnect between commanded and actual shaft position.
 
During tracking, you can loosen the clutches to allow manual sweeping of the sky with your scope. The encoders will sense that you want to go manual and will hand the scope over to you and will keep track of the axis positions at all times. Clutches can be fully loose or partially engaged as needed for manual operation. If you have a planetarium program you can see the cursor move on your screen as you push the scope to different parts of the sky.
 
The mount can be a Push-to, GoTo or complete remote automated observatory mount as you need. The Mach2 is about the most versatile mount you will ever need for your medium-size scope or imaging setups.
 
We hope to have one of the first production mounts at the Okie-Tex Star Party September 21-28. Stop by to check it out.
 
Roland Christen
Astro-Physics Inc.